Nur Fatah Abidin, Ghufronudin Ghufronudin, Bagas Narendra Parahita, Anis Suryaningsih, Lies Nurhaini


The success of online learning implementation in higher education is determined by internal factor such as student self-directedness. The article aimed to measure students’ self-directedness in higher education context. The research respondents were 472 students from the Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, Sebelas Maret University. The respondent were selected based on cluster and random sampling. The data were collected through the Self-rating Scale of Self-Directed Learning (SRSSDL). The results showed the level of student learning self-directed learning is at a medium and high level. The results also illustrate the transformative ability of students in the setting of online learning. Overall, this study shows the importance of student self-direction in supporting online learning readiness. Therefore, teacher must be able to provide constructivism-based learning strategies and student-centred approaches that can accommodate student independence in the learning process.


independence, learning, higher education

Full Text:



Alminhana, L. O., Farias, M., Claridge, G., Cloninger, C. R., & Moreira-Almeida, A. (2017). Self- Directedness Predicts Quality of Life in Individuals with Psychotic Experiences: A 1-Year Follow-Up Study. Psychopathology, 50(4). https://doi.org/10.1159/000474951

Ambrose, S., Bridges, M., DiPietro, M., Lovett, M., & Norman, M. (2012). How Does Students’ Prior Knowledge Affect Their Learning? In How Learning Works: Seven Research-Based Principles for Smart Teaching (Vol. 26, Issue 2).

Bernard, R. M., Brauer, A., Abrami, P. C., & Surkes, M. (2004). The development of a questionnaire for predicting online learning achievement. International Journal of Phytoremediation, 25(1). https://doi.org/10.1080/0158791042000212440

Brookfield, S. (1984). Self-directed adult learning: A critical paradigm. Adult Education Quarterly, 35(2). https://doi.org/10.1177/0001848184035002001

Daniel, S. J. (2020). Education and the COVID-19 pandemic. Prospects, 49(1–2). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11125-020-09464-3

Doyle, T. (2008). Helping students learn in a learner-centered environment: a guide to facilitating learning in higher education. Stylus.

Favale, T., Soro, F., Trevisan, M., Drago, I., & Mellia, M. (2020). Campus traffic and e-Learning during COVID-19 pandemic. Computer Networks, 176. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.comnet.2020.107290

Hall, T., Connolly, C., Ó Grádaigh, S., Burden, K., Kearney, M., Schuck, S., Bottema, J., Cazemier, G., Hustinx, W., Evens, M., Koenraad, T., Makridou, E., & Kosmas, P. (2020). Education in precarious times: a comparative study across six countries to identify design priorities for mobile learning in a pandemic. Information and Learning Science, 121(5–6). https://doi.org/10.1108/ILS-04-2020-0089

Hung, M. L., Chou, C., Chen, C. H., & Own, Z. Y. (2010). Learner readiness for online learning: Scale development and student perceptions. Computers and Education, 55(3). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2010.05.004

Jansen, R. S., van Leeuwen, A., Janssen, J., Jak, S., & Kester, L. (2019). Self-regulated learning partially mediates the effect of self-regulated learning interventions on achievement in higher education: A meta-analysis. In Educational Research Review (Vol. 28). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.edurev.2019.100292

Jena, R. K. (2016). Investigating the interrelation between attitudes, learning readiness, and learning styles under virtual learning environment: a study among Indian students. Behaviour and Information Technology, 35(11). https://doi.org/10.1080/0144929X.2016.1212930

Joosten, T., & Cusatis, R. (2020). Online Learning Readiness. American Journal of Distance Education, 34(3). https://doi.org/10.1080/08923647.2020.1726167

Kamal, A. A., Shaipullah, N. M., Truna, L., Sabri, M., & Junaini, S. N. (2020). Transitioning to online learning during COVID-19 Pandemic: Case study of a Pre-University Centre in Malaysia. International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications, 11(6). https://doi.org/10.14569/IJACSA.2020.0110628

Khiat, H. (2017). Academic performance and the practice of self-directed learning: The adult student perspective. Journal of Further and Higher Education, 41(1). https://doi.org/10.1080/0309877X.2015.1062849

Knowles, M. S. (1975). Self-directed learning: a guide for learners and teachers. In Selfdirected learning A guide for learners and teachers.

Markett, S., Reuter, M., Sindermann, C., & Montag, C. (2020). Cognitive failure susceptibility and personality: Self-directedness predicts everyday cognitive failure. Personality and Individual Differences, 159. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2020.109916

Martzoukou, K., Fulton, C., Kostagiolas, P., & Lavranos, C. (2020). A study of higher education students’ self-perceived digital competences for learning and everyday life online participation. Journal of Documentation, 76(6). https://doi.org/10.1108/JD-03-2020-0041

Morgan, H. (2020). The Clearing House: A Journal of Educational Strategies, Issues and Ideas Best Practices for Implementing Remote Learning during a Pandemic. Taylor & Francis, 93(3).

Murphy, M. P. A. (2020). COVID-19 and emergency eLearning: Consequences of the securitization of higher education for post-pandemic pedagogy. Contemporary Security Policy, 41(3). https://doi.org/10.1080/13523260.2020.1761749

Otani, K., Suzuki, A., Matsumoto, Y., & Shirata, T. (2018). Interrelations among negative core beliefs, attachment anxiety and low self-directedness, putative central constructs of depression vulnerabilities in cognitive, attachment and psychobiological personality theories. Psychiatry Research, 268. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2018.06.065

Stephen, J. S., Rockinson-Szapkiw, A. J., & Dubay, C. (2020). Persistence Model of Non-traditional Online Learners: Self-Efficacy, Self-Regulation, and Self-Direction. American Journal of Distance Education, 34(4). https://doi.org/10.1080/08923647.2020.1745619

UNESCO. (2020). COVID-19 Impact on Education. UNESCO Institute for Statistics Data, 19(2).

Valencia-Arias, A., Chalela-Naffah, S., & Bermúdez-Hernández, J. (2019). A proposed model of e- learning tools acceptance among university students in developing countries. Education and Information Technologies, 24(2). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-018-9815-2

Wang, C. H., Shannon, D. M., & Ross, M. E. (2013). Students’ characteristics, self-regulated learning, technology self-efficacy, and course outcomes in online learning. Distance Education, 34(3). https://doi.org/10.1080/01587919.2013.835779

Wei, H. C., & Chou, C. (2020). Online learning performance and satisfaction: do perceptions and readiness matter? Distance Education, 41(1). https://doi.org/10.1080/01587919.2020.1724768

Williamson, S. N. (2007). Development of a self-rating scale of self-directed learning. Nurse Researcher, 14(2). https://doi.org/10.7748/nr2007.

Wu, J. H., Tennyson, R. D., & Hsia, T. L. (2010). A study of student satisfaction in a blended e- learning system environment. Computers and Education, 55(1). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2009.12.012

Yeh, Y. C., Kwok, O. M., Chien, H. Y., Sweany, N. W., Baek, E., & McIntosh, W. A. (2019). How college students’ achievement goal orientations predict their expected online learning outcome: The mediation roles of self-regulated learning strategies and supportive online learning behaviors. Online Learning Journal, 23(4). https://doi.org/10.24059/olj.v23i4.2076

Yu, T. (2018). Examining construct validity of the student online learning readiness (SOLR) instrument using confirmatory factor analysis. Online Learning Journal, 22(4). https://doi.org/10.24059/olj.v22i4.1297

Zhu, X., & Liu, J. (2020). Education in and After Covid-19: Immediate Responses and Long-Term Visions. Postdigital Science and Education, 2(3). https://doi.org/10.1007/s42438-020- 00126-3

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.31258/jp.13.2.93-103


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Nur Fatah Abidin, Ghufronudin Ghufronudin, Bagas Narendra Parahita, Anis Suryaningsih, Lies Nurhaini

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.